Tutorials & Suggested Papers


A Tutorial Talk for SuperDARN (Ruohoniemi)

Space Weather Presentation (Baker)

CDAWeb Access Presentation (Baker)

Space Weather Modeling and CGS Intro


History of the Super Dual Aural Radar Network (SuperDARN)-1: preSuperDARN developments in high frequency radar technology for ionospheric research and selected scientific results (Greenwald 2021)

Abstract: Part I of this history describes the motivations for developing radars in the high frequency (HF) band to study plasma density irregularities in the F region of the auroral zone and polar cap ionospheres. French and Swedish scientists were the first to use HF frequencies to study the Doppler velocities of HF radar backscatter from F-region plasma density irregularities over northern Sweden. These observations encouraged the author of this paper to pursue similar measurements over northeastern Alaska, and this eventually led to the construction of a large HF-phased-array radar at Goose Bay, Labrador, Canada. This radar utilized frequencies from 8–20 MHz and could be electronically steered over 16 beam directions, covering a 52◦ azimuth sector. Subsequently, similar radars were constructed at Schefferville, Quebec, and Halley Station, Antarctica. Observations with these radars showed that F-region backscatter often exhibited Doppler velocities that were significantly above and below the ion-acoustic velocity. This distinguished HF Doppler measurements from prior measurements of E-region irregularities that were obtained with radars operating at very high frequency (VHF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF). Results obtained with these early HF radars are also presented. They include comparisons of Doppler velocities observed with HF radars and incoherent scatter radars, comparisons of plasma convection patterns observed simultaneously in conjugate hemispheres, and the response of these patterns to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field, transient velocity enhancements in the dayside cusp, preferred frequencies for geomagnetic pulsations, and observations of medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves with HF radars.

A decade of the Super Dual Auroral Radar network(SuperDARN): scientific achievements, new techniques and future directions (Chisham et al. 2007)

Abstract: The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) has been operating as an international co-operative organization for over 10 years. The network has now grown so that the fields of view of its 18 radars cover the majority of the northern and southern hemisphere polar ionospheres. SuperDARN has been successful in addressing a wide range of scientific questions concerning processes in the magnetosphere, ionosphere,thermosphere, and mesosphere, as well as general plasma physics questions. We commence this paper with a historical introduction to SuperDARN. Following this, we review the science performed by SuperDARN over the last 10 years covering the areas of ionospheric convection, field-aligned currents, magnetic reconnection, substorms, MHD waves, the neutral atmosphere, and E-region ionospheric irregularities. In addition, we provide an up-to-date description of the current network, as well as the analysis techniques available for use with the data from the radars. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the future of SuperDARN, its expansion, and new science opportunities.

Review of the accomplishments of mid-latitude Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radars (Nishitani et al. 2019)

Abstract: The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is a network of high-frequency (HF) radars located in the high- and mid-latitude regions of both hemispheres that is operated under international cooperation. The network was originally designed for monitoring the dynamics of the ionosphere and upper atmosphere in the high-latitude regions. However, over the last approximately 15 years, SuperDARN has expanded into the mid-latitude regions. With radar coverage that now extends continuously from auroral to sub-auroral and mid-latitudes, a wide variety of new scientific findings have been obtained. In this paper, the background of mid-latitude SuperDARN is presented at first. Then, the accomplishments made with the mid-latitude SuperDARN radars are reviewed in five specified scientific and technical areas: convection, ionospheric irregularities, HF propagation analysis, ion-neutral interactions, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. Finally, the present status of mid-latitude SuperDARN is updated and directions for future research are discussed.

An HF phased-array radar for studying small-scale structure in the high-latitude ionosphere (Greenwald et al. 1985)

Abstract: Since October 1983, a new coherent backscatter radar has been in operation at Goose Bay, Labrador, for the purpose of studying small-scale electron density structure in the high-latitude ionosphere. This radar operates over a frequency band that extends from 8 to 20 MHz, and it uses an electronically phased array of 16 log-periodic antennas for both transmission and reception. The radar transmits a seven-pulse pattern that enables one to determine 17-lag complex autocorrelation functions of the backscattered signals as a function of range and azimuth. In this papper we present a complete description of the radar including explanations of the operation of the phasing matrix, the techniques of data acquisistion and analysis as implemented in the radar microcomputer, and the possible on-line and automatic operating modes that may be instituted. We also present examples of some of the initial results that we have obtained with the radar during the afternoon and late evening hours. These examples include images of the two-dimensional distribution of small-scale structure and of their associated mean Doppler motion. We also present examples of F region Doppler spectra derived from the complex autocorrelation functions. These Doppler spectra show interesting differences from those of high-latitude E region irregularities.

Testing the Re-designed SuperDARN HF Radar and Modeling of a Twin Terminated Folded Dipole Array (Sterne 2010)

Abstract: The Super Dual Auroral Radar Radar Network (SuperDARN) is an international collaboration of researchers interested in Earth's near-space plasma environment. This group uses high frequency (HF) radars and backscatter from magnetic field-aligned plasma irregularities to study space weather manifesting in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere. Space weather impacts many technological systems including Global Positioning System(GPS), spacecraft orbits, power distribution, surveillance radar, HF communications and transpolar aviation.
This thesis explores, in detail, the techniques and challenges of constructing, testing, and operating a newly designed SuperDARN HF radar. In modern times, the use of such frequencies for radar is limited to a very specific applications and thus the topics presented are not common place. A new antenna design, the twin terminated folded dipole(TTFD), is analyzed along with the modeling results for several proposed and constructed phased arrays for this design. Finally, an initial radiation pattern measurement for the TTFD is presented and notes on how a similar measurement might be conducted on a TTFD phased array.